#1 People are a product of their communities.
Not so sure how much I believe this one. Of course, we are influenced by our communities. How much? I don't know. I suppose I am too much of an individualist to believe some of the claims in the book, such as visiting with neighbors alone does more to cure heart disease that exercise or diet changes. And while geniuses make use of the opportunities offered to them, I think that they would also make use of other opportunities. The kind of genius I find useful is the kind that persists until it is successful.
#2 There is no such thing as a genius without hard work.
Gladwell says 10,000 hours is the magic number to make someone an expert. He uses Bill Gates, Mozart, and Bill Joy as examples, among others. He argues that Mozart didn't really write any good music until he was 21 and past his 10,000 hours. I do not know enough about music to be sure this is true, but I suspect that it is at least in part. The part people are misunderstanding is Gladwell's insistence that there must still be inborn talent for the 10,000 hours to make any difference. He's trying to counteract the idea that if you're not a genius at first, then you'll never be one. And also the excuse that people give to themselves when they say they just didn't have the genius to begin with.
#3 Our current public school system is particularly disadvantageous to poor kids.
This is a minor point, but one that struck me particularly. I love summer vacation and I always have a special project planned for my kids. Sometimes they groan over my plan to teach them all about interval training and long runs and heart rate. Other times we do things like offer them a chance to buy the family's food for a whole week, or to learn all the Starcraft missions. We offer an end of the summer reward, and they are also expected to do reading every day and to help one of the other children in the family or do some kind of service daily. So my children rarely show any post summer learning deficits. In fact, they always go back to school with more knowledge and skills than before. But that's because they're privileged. Not that we're so very wealthy, but at least I am home with them and have the skills to occupy their minds and I put a priority on this. Many poor kids--not so much. School should be rear young and it should be done in groups based on ability (possibly related to close age grouping) and not based on what the school thinks will make a "balanced" classroom for the teacher.